Political Constitution of the United Mexican States (CPEUM), In his original 1917 text, I established in Article 35 a series of privileges in favor of Mexican citizens in relation to other residents of the country who do not have Mexican citizenship.
In general, the powers conferred by the electors of 1917 were: to vote, to vote and to be appointed to any public office having the qualities prescribed by law; associates to deal with the political affairs of the country; take up arms in defense of the Republic and its institutions under the conditions established by law; and exercise the right to petition.
The Legislative Assembly made seven reforms to Article 35 of the Constitution. The first, issued on April 6, 1990, added the terms freely and peacefully to the right to “participate in dealing with the political affairs of the country.” Which appears to have been taken as a precautionary measure after the political fever of the 1988 elections.
The second reform was issued on August 22, 1996 AD He added the term “individual” to “freely and peacefully” those who were included six years ago in the right of association. The concept of individuality was included at the time when it was discussed against the association or institutional affiliation of people, which was one of the foundations of building the political party that ruled the country for more than six decades.
The third reform was issued on August 9, 2012, which added to the right to vote, that is, requiring citizens to register them as independent candidates for popular electoral positions. Conditions stipulated by law, thus ending the monopoly of political parties to register candidates. Likewise, citizens were given the right to create laws and vote in popular consultations under the conditions laid down by law.
The fourth reform, which was issued on February 10, 2014, detailed the requirements for popular consultation. The Fifth Reform issued on March 26, 2019 established the authority to bear arms in defense of the republic.
The sixth reform was issued on June 6, 2019. In it, the title of Chapter IV of the Law on the Protection of Individuals, to which Article 35 belongs, was changed from the concept of “citizen’s privileges” to “citizenship rights”, the concept of which is related to the protection of individual freedom. The text has been amended to establish the right of citizens to vote under conditions of parity, as well as the accuracy of making the registration request for “men and women candidates”, As part of gender parity reforms. The seventh reform dealt with details of the right to propose laws and matters related to popular consultation.
The important thing in the development of Article 35 of the Consumer Protection Charter was: exchange of privileges for rights; inclusive language the right of citizens to request registration of popularly elected positions as independent candidates; The right of citizens to propose laws and to include popular consultation, making it a transcendental material in favor of citizenship and their rights.
- * Tlaxcala Electoral Court Judge