It really ended on the 13th

LAST November 6, there was a commemoration of the surrender of the Spanish government to the Negros revolutionary leaders. Thus the day is celebrated as the end of the Negros “bloodless” revolution. In truth, it was not bloodless and it did not end until 13th of November when the last Spanish garrison surrendered in Cauayan and all Spanish troops were accounted for.

This oversight is due to the focus on the prominent leaders of the revolution in Silay, Minuluan (“Talisay” was not yet used as the name of the town), Bago and Bacolod as if they did it all by themselves. Ignored and thus forgotten are thousands more who rose against Spain, long before these ilustrados came into the picture. They were the unshod** and unschooled and thus did not “deserve” recognition by early writings and dramatizations of the November 5 revolt.

While Bacolod was celebrating the surrender, the guardia civil and casadores assigned in Kabankalan, Himamaylan and Cauayan did not know of the capitulation. The revolutionary group in Kabankalan, headed by Mateo Guanzon learned about events in Bacolod so they rose against the Spaniards on the 7th. When the 40 men of Guanzon poised to attack the Spanish garrison, Lt. Mateo Mastache, commander of the garrison tried to organize a defense, but the 14 casadores, native home guards similar to today’s CAFGUs, mutinied, disarmed Mastache and surrendered the garrison.

In Himamaylan, the garrison decided to fight. Seven Spanish casadores, six of them peninsulares and a mestizo Castillan, under the command of Corporal Daniel Martinez, had taken refuge inside the church and hoisted the Spanish flag atop the belfry. From this vantage position, they believed they could hold off rebel attacks. On the 6th, they were informed of the surrender in Bacolod, but Martinez refused to capitulate. Instead he declared to have taken a church sanctuary and therefore he and his men would be immune from assault.

Town Capitan Macario Sido, and his companions, Teodorico Jocson, Pedro Vasquez and a certain R. Jocson, gathered their farm workers in Hacienda Libacan, to force the defenders out. The rebels gathered whatever pistols they could find and got a few. They attacked the church before dawn of November 7 but were repulsed. They laid siege until nightfall but could not force the surrender. At dawn of the 8th the revolutionaries attacked again but once more failed to effect a surrender. Emissaries were sent to Martinez urging him to give up the fight in the light of the information that the government in Bacolod had already fallen and Governor Isidro de Castro had issued an order for all Spanish troops to surrender.

Martinez refused to believe the information. After all there was no telegram or written order to surrender and he had no news of the events in other towns. The information could have been a trick. Thus he rejected all attempts at negotiations or even an offer to a truce until he received an order. His defense, moreover, was secured and his soldiers were on an elevated position with a clear view of the attackers. In fact, he had already killed four and wounded several attackers. Their firearms were more superior than the few pistols of the rebels. The wounded attackers were brought to the health clinic of Mariano Yulo in Binalbagan.

In the early morning of November 8, Rafael Ramos, the deputy commander of the Revolutionary forces for southern Negros arrived on the scene. Ramos, a respected hacendado in Himamaylan, threatened to assault the church with troops armed with superior weaponry. He also showed Martinez a copy of the Acta de Capitulacion signed by Governor de Castro. Martinez decided to surrender and his men who were also wounded were brought to Binalbagan.

A patrol of casadores who were hunting for Papa Isio arrived in Binalbagan to see a new government in place and were subsequently disarmed.

In Cauayan, the rebels rose against Spanish rule only when news of the surrender in Bacolod spread in the town. The small contingent of casadores forthwith laid down their arms. Other garrisons that had received the news of the capitulation in Bacolod followed suit without a fight. The surrender of the Cauayan garrison on the 13th completed the end of Spanish rule in Occidental Negros.

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